Kayaç türü listesi

Gezinti kısmına atla Arama kısmına atla

petrologların tanıdığı ve tanımladığı kayaç türü listesi. Kayaç olmayan türler ile eski kayaç türlerinin adları ek olarak verilmiştir.

Magmatik kayaçlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. Diameter of view is 8 cm.
Andezit - bir ortaç yüzey kayacı
Alkali feldspat granit - a granitoid in which at least 90% of the total feldspar is in the form of alkali feldspar
Anortozit - an intrusive igneous felsic rock composed predominantly of plagioclase
Aplit - a very fine grained intrusive igneous rock composed of quartz and feldspar
Bazalt - mafik bileşimli yüzey kayacı
Adakit - düşük miktarda itriyum ve iterbiyum içeren bir bazalt sınıfı
Havaiit - a class of basalts formed from ocean island (hot spot) magmatizma.
Bazanit - a volcanic rock of mafic composition; essentially a silica-undersaturated basalt
Boninit - baskın olarak piroksen içeren magnezyumca zengin bazalt
Dasit - a felsic to intermediate volcanic rock containing hornblende and with plagioclase > orthoclase
Diyabaz ya da dolerit - an intrusive mafic rock forming dykes or sills
Diyorit - a coarse-grained intermediate plutonic rock composed of plagioclase, pyroxene and/or amphibole
Dünit - a phaneritic ultramafic rock composed of more than 90% olivine, usually forsteritic
Essexite - a silica undersaturated mafic plutonic rock (essentially a foid-bearing gabbro)
Foidolite - a plutonic igneous rock composed of >90% feldspathoid minerals
Gabro - a coarse grained plutonic rock composed of pyroxene and plagioclase basically equivalent to basalt
Granit - a coarse grained plutonic rock composed of orthoclase, plagioclase and quartz
Granodiyorit - a granitic plutonic rock with plagioclase > orthoclase
Granofir - a subvolcanic intrusive rock of granitic composition
Harzburjit - a variety of peridotite; an ultramafic cumulate rock
Hornblendit - a mafic or ultramafic cumulate rock dominated by >90% hornblende
Hiyaloklastit - a volcanic rock composed primarily of glasses and glassy tuff
İzlandit - a volcanic rock
İgnimbrit - a fragmental volcanic rock
Ijolite - a very rare silica-undersaturated plutonic rock
Karbonatit - a rare igneous rock composed of >50% carbonate minerals
Karnokit - a type of granite containing orthopyroxene
Enderbit - a variety of charnockite
Kimberlit - nadir ultramafik, ultrapotassik yüzey kayacı ve elmas kaynağı
Komatit - çok yüksek miktarda MgO içeren eski bir ultramafik yüzey kayacı
Lamproyit - an ultrapotassic volcanic rock
Lamprofir - an ultramafic, ultrapotassic intrusive rock dominated by mafic phenocrysts in a feldspar groundmass
Latit - a silica undersaturated form of andesite
Lherzolit - an ultramafic rock, essentially a peridotite
Monzogranit - a silica undersaturated granite with <5% normative quartz
Monzonit - a plutonic rock with <5% normative quartz
Nefelin siyenit - a silica undersaturated plutonic rock with nepheline replacing orthoclase
Neflinit - a silica undersaturated plutonic rock with >90% nepheline
Norit - a hypersthene bearing gabbro
Obsidiyen - a type of volcanic glass
Pegmatit - an igneous rock (or metamorphic rock) with giant sized crystals
Peridotit - a plutonic or cumulate ultramafic rock composed of olivine and pyroxene
Fonolit - a silica undersaturated volcanic rock; essentially similar to nepheline syenite
Pikrit - an olivine-bearing basalt
Porfiri - a rock, usually granitic, with a porphyritic texture
Pümis - a fine grained, extremely vesicular volcanic rock
Piroksenit - %90'dan fazla piroksen bileşimli kaba taneli derinlik kayası
Kuvars diyorit - %5'ten fazla modal kuvars içeren diyorit
Kuvars monzonit - bir ortaç bileşimli derinlik kayası, essentially a monzonite with 5-10% modal quartz
Riyodasit - a felsic volcanic rock which is intermediate between a rhyolite and a dacite
Riyolit - bir felsik yüzey kayacı
Komendit - bir peralkalin riyolit
Pantellerit - amfibol fenokristaller içeren bir alkalin riyolit-riyodasit
Skorya - an extremely vesicular mafic volcanic rock
Sovit - kaba taneli karbonatit kayacı
Siyenit - baskın olarak ortoklaz feldispat içeren bir derinlik kayacı; bir tür granitoid
Takilit - essentially bir basaltik cam
Tefrit - a silica undersaturated volcanic rock
Tonalit - baskın olarak plajioklaz içeren bir granitoid
Trakiyandesit - bir alkalin ortaç yüzey kayacı
Benmoreit - sodic trakiandezit
Bazaltik trakiyandezit
Müjearit - sodic basaltic trachyandesite
Şoşonit - potasyumca zengin bazaltik trakiandezit
Trakit - a silica undersaturated volcanic rock; essentially a feldspathoid-bearing rhyolite
Troktolit - a plutonic ultramafic rock containing olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase
Trondhjemite - a form of tonalite where plagioclase-group feldspar is oligoclase
Tüf - a fine grained volcanic rock formed from volcanic ash
Vebsterit - a type of pyroxenite, composed of clinoproxene and orthopyroxene
Vehrlit - an ultramafic plutonic or cumulate rock, a type of peridotite, composed of olivine and clinopyroxene

Tortul kayaçlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Batı Virginia'da bitümlü kömür damarı
Dolomite crystals from Touissite, Fas
Türbidit (Gorgoglione Fliş), Miyosen, Güney İtalya
Arjillit - a sedimentary rock composed primarily of clay-sized particles
Arkoz - a sedimentary rock similar to sandstone
Banded iron formation - a fine grained chemical sedimentary rock composed of iron oxide minerals
Breş - a sedimentary or tectonic rock composed of fragments of other, broken rocks
Tebeşir - a sedimentary rock composed primarily of coccolith fossils
Çört - silika bileşimli ince taneli bir kimyasal tortul kayaç
Kiltaşı - kilden oluşan bir tortul kayaç
Kömür - organik maddede oluşan bir tortul kayaç
Konglomera - çeşitli kayaçların bol miktarda yuvarlatılmış parçalarınıdan oluşan bir tortul kayaç
Coquina - a sedimentary carbonate rock formed by accumulation of abundant shell fossils and fragments
Diamictite - a poorly sorted conglomerate
Diyatomit - diyatom taşıllarından oluşan bir tortul kayaç
Dolomit ya da dolotaşı - a carbonate rock composed of the mineral dolomite +/- calcite
Evaporit - a chemical sedimentary rock formed by accumulation of minerals after evaporation; kaya tuzu (halitit) ve jips kayacı içeren varyasyonlar
Flint - bir çört çeşidi
Grovak - an immature sandstone with quartz, feldspar and rock fragments within a clay matrix
Gritstone - essentially a coarse sandstone formed from small pebbles
Itacolumite - porous, yellow-orange sandstone which is flexible if cut into thin strips
Jaspillite - an iron-rich chemical sedimentary rock similar to chert or banded iron formation
Laterite - a residual sedimentary rock formed from a parent rock under tropical conditions
Linyit - a sedimentary rock composed of organic material; otherwise known as Brown Coal
Kireçtaşı - a sedimentary rock composed primarily of carbonate minerals
Marl - a limestone with a considerable proportion of silicate material
Çamurtaşı - a sedimentary rock composed of clay and muds
Oil shale - a sedimentary rock composed dominantly of organic material
Oolit - bir çeşit kimyasal tortul kireçtaşı
Kumtaşı - a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size
Şeyl - a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size
Silttaşı - a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size
Traverten - demir oksit ve kalsit içeren bir tortul kayaç
Türbidit - a particular sequence of sedimentary rocks which form within the deep ocean environment
Vaketaşı - a matrix-supported carbonate sedimentary rock.

Metamorfik kayaçlar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Fillit
Banded gneiss with a dike of granite orthogneiss
Mermer
Kuvarsit
Manhattan Şist, New York'un güneydoğusundan
Sleyt
Antrasit - bir tür kömür
Amfibolit - ağırlıklı olarak amfibol içeren bir metamorfik kayaç
Mavişist - sodalı amfibol bileşimli belirgin mavi renge sahip bir metamorfik kayaç
Kataklasit - faylanma ile oluşan bir kayaç
Eklojit - ultra-yüksek derecede başkalaşmış bazalt ya da gabro; ayrıca metamorfik kayaçların bir fasiyes türü
Gnays - kaba taneli bir metamorfik kayaç
Gossan - the product of the weathering of a sulfide rock or ore body
Granülit - a high grade metamorphic rock formed from basalt; also a facies of metamorphic rocks
Yeşilşist - baskın olarak yeşil amfibol içeren bir mafik metamorfik kayaç
Greenstone
Hornfels - bir magmatik kayaç tarafından ısıtılarak oluşmuş bir metamorfik kayaç
Mermer - başkalaşım geçirmiş kireçtaşı
Migmatit - a high grade metamorphic rock verging upon melting into a magma
Milonit - a metamorphic rock formed by shearing
Metapelit - a metamorphic rock with a protolith of clay-rich (siltstone) sedimentary rock
Fillit - a low grade metamorphic rock composed mostly of micaceous minerals
Metapsammite - a metamorphic rock with a protolith of quartz-rich (sandstone) sedimentary rock
Pseudotachylite - a glass formed by melting within a fault via friction
Kuvarsit - genellikle %95'ten fazla kuvars içeren başkalaşmış kumtaşı
Şist - a low to medium grade metamorphic rock
Serpantinit - serpantin minerallerince zengin başkalaşmış bir ultramafik kayaç
Skarn - bir metasomatik kayaç
Sleyt - a low grade metamorphic rock formed from shale or silts
Suevite - a rock formed by partial melting during a meteorite impact
Talk karbonat - a metamorphosed ultramafic rock with talc as an essential constituent; similar to a serpentinite
Soapstone - essentially a talc schist
Beyazşist - a high pressure metamorphic rock containing talc and kyanite

Specific varieties of rocks[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

The following are terms for rocks that are not petrographically or genetically distinct but are defined according to various other criteria; most are specific classes of other rocks, or altered versions of existing rocks. Some archaic and vernacular terms for rocks are also included.

Adamellit - a variety of quartz monzonite
Appinite - a group of varieties of lamprophyre, mostly rich in hornblende
Afanit - an aphanitic felsic volcanic rock which confounds identification via optical means
Borolanit - a variety of nepheline syenite from Loch Borralan, Scotland
Blue Granite - essentially larvikite, a monzonite
Epidosit - a type of metasomatite; essentially altered basalt
Felsit - an aphanitic felsic volcanic rock which confounds identification via optical means
Flint - typically a form of chert, jasper, or tuff
Ganister - a Cornish term for a palaeosol formed on sandstone
Ijolite - a silica-undersaturated plutonic rock associated with nepheline syenites
Jadeitite - a very rare rock formed by concentration of jadeite pyroxene; a form of serpentinite
Jasperoid - a hematite-silica metasomatite analogous to a skarn
Kenyte - a variety of phonolite, first found on Mount Kenya
Vogesite - a variety of lamprophyre
Larvikite - a variety of monzonite with microperthitic ternary feldspars from Larvik, Norway
Litchfieldite - a metamorphosed nepheline syenite occurrence near Litchfield, Maine
Luxullianite - a tourmaline-bearing granite with a peculiar texture, occurring at Luxulyan, Cornwall, England
Mangerite - a hypersthene-bearing monzonite
Minette - a variety of lamprophyre
Novaculite - a chert formation found in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Teksas
Pirolit - a chemical analogue considered to theoretically represent the earth's upper mantle
Rapakivi granite - a granite which exhibits the peculiar rapakivi texture
Rhomb porphyry - a type of latite with euhedral rhombic phenocrysts of feldspar
Shonkinite - melitilic and kalsititic rocks
Takonit - banded iron formation, primarily used in the United States of America
Teschenite - essentially a silica undersaturated, analcime bearing gabbro
Theralite - essentially a nepheline gabbro
Variolite - devitrified glass

Ayrıca bakınız[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

Dış bağlantılar[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]